- Sigurd Sejer Skov + Anne A. Lange: Portugal 1974-75: Nellikerevolutionen
Socialistisk Arbejderavis nr. 343, feb 15 – side 13
Note: Den 25. april 1974 lød tonerne fra “Grandola Villa Morena” i radioen i Lissabon. Det var et signal til officerer fra De Væbnede Styrkers Bevægelse (MFA) om at starte et statskup.
- Bob Light: Portugal: 1974-5
International Socialism Journal nr. 142, apr 14
Note: Just after midnight on 25 April 1974 a Lisbon radio station played a song called Grandola Villa Morena and Portugal was changed forever. The song was the agreed signal for a coup by junior officers to bring down the authoritarian and geriatric government of Marcello Caetano but it was also the start of an intoxicating period of 18 months when Portugal would sashay to the very brink of a working class revolution.
- Salena Williams: A Review of the Novels of Jose Saramago: Portugese Socialist Novelist (1922-2010)
Irish Marxist Review (Irland) nr. 7, sep 13 – side 61
Note: Saramago is arguably the greatest socialist novelist of the 20th and early 21st century.
- Dave Sewell: Cuts create a crisis for rulers in Greece and Portugal
Socialist Worker nr. 2361, jul 13 – side 8
Note: European rulers continue to target the poor as they try to escape the eurozone crisis, writes Dave Sewell.
- Catarina Príncipe: From mobilisation to resistance: Portugal’s struggle against austerity
International Socialism Journal nr. 138, apr 13 – side 79
Note: Portugal, as one of the countries in the European Union taken hostage by the Troika (the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Commission), has been subjected to increasingly harsh austerity policies that have led the country into a recession of historic proportions, the result being mass impoverishment.
- Dave Sewell: Portugal says no to the cuts
Socialist Worker nr. 2343, mar 13 – side 20
Note: Up to 800,000 protesters took over the centre of Lisbon, Portugal, on Saturday of last week. More demonstrations across 20 other cities brought the total protesting to one and a half million—over a tenth of the population.
- Portugal: Disillusion shapes election
Socialist Worker nr. 2255, jun 11 – side 6
Note: The Socialist Party in Portugal became the latest victim of the economic crisis when it was defeated in last Sunday’s general election. The right wing Social Democratic Party won 38.7 percent of the votes.
- Gustavo Toshiaki: General strike rocks Portugal
Socialist Worker nr. 2192, mar 10 – side 3
Note: Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese workers took part in a general strike on Thursday of last week.
- Nellikerevolutionen i Portugal 1974
Socialistisk Arbejderavis nr. 228, apr 04 – side 5
Note: For 30 år siden blev et fascistisk diktatur fjernet fra magten på mindre end én dag.
- Ågot Berger: Portugal 1974-75: Nellikerevolutionen
Socialistisk Arbejderavis nr. 104, jun 94 – side 10
Note: Revolutionen var en nødvendig og befriende løsning efter mange års undertrykkelse. Men der manglede et parti til at føre kampen videre
- Jørgen Lund: Portugal 1974-75: Nellikerne der ikke sprang ud
Socialistisk Arbejderavis nr. 15, dec 85 – side 6
Note: For 10 år siden blev de forhåbninger og forventninger, som den såkaldte »nellike-revolution« i Portugal rejste, knust.
- Ian Birchall: Social democracy and the Portuguese ‘revolution’
International Socialism Journal nr. 6, sep 79 – side 71
Note: It is now four years since the hot revolutionary summer of 1975 in Portugal. The Portuguese experience (together with the Italian elections of 1976 and the ‘social contact’ in Britain) marked a crucial turning-point for the European revolutionary left, whose ‘crisis’ Chris Harman analysed in Number 4 of this journal.
- Notes of the Month: Portugal: Government and Bosses Go on Offensive
International Socialism Journal (1st series) nr. 101, sep 77 – side 7
Note: PORTUGAL remains unstable, and the instability is increasing. The Socialist Party government is continuing its policy of ‘pin-prick’-attacks on the working class in the factories and on the land. The more left-wing elements of the socialist party, opposed the official line of handling land and factories back to their ‘rightful’ capitalist owners, are being forced out of the party.
- Peter Robinson + Tony Cliff: Portugal: The Last Three Months
International Socialism Journal (1st series) nr. 87, apr 76 – side 10
Note: The events of the 25th November 1975 radically changed the situation in Portugal. Until then the revolutionary movement had been advancing powerfully: workers had taken over some 300 factories; there were massive occupations of latifundia; the army was racked by conflict between revolutionary soldiers and right wing officers; the government had so little control that it toyed openly with the idea of moving away from Lisbon to Oporto.
- Tony Cliff: Portugal at the Crossroads
International Socialism Journal (1st series) nr. 81-82, sep 75
- Red Saunders: Pictures from Portugal
International Socialism Journal (1st series) nr. 80, jul 75 – side 17
- Portugal: The Views of a PRP Leader
International Socialism Journal (1st series) nr. 80, jul 75 – side 19
Note: Immediately after the IS national conference, fraternal delegates from various countries met to exchange views on the problems of building revolutionary parties. This is a shortened version of the contribution made by a leading member of the PRP (Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat) of Portugal.
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